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We are pleased to make your acquaintance. On behalf of the editors of our esteemed journals it is an honor to invite researchers of every field including Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics(STEM) to publish their findings with us. Join hands with Boffin Access on a journey to disseminate your research and expertise to those in need across the globe through Open Access.

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Come and join Boffin Access Ltd. in expanding and contributing to the wealth of human knowledge. With our platform we hope to maximize the reach of your unique expertise and skill set to inspire and guide future generations onto a path of creative and sustainable innovation.

Recently PUBLISHED Articles

Seasonal Effect on Complexation of NOM and Alkaline Earth Metal Ions in Raw and Cooling Water to Study its Impact on Scaling Potentials in Eskom Power Plant

Rising costs of power generation as a result of increased condenser tube scaling and corrosion have become critical areas that need intervention at Eskom’s power stations in South Africa. In the past few years, the quality of cooling and raw water has deteriorated with increased concentrations of scale formation metals such as calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) as well as Natural Organic Matter (NOM). The Dissolved Organic Matter (DOC) fraction of NOM in the water forms complexes with metals Ca and Mg under various conditions. In this study, the Cooling Water (CW) and Raw Water (RW) at Lethabo and Duvha power stations were sampled and were analyzed for metals as well as organics and the data obtained was fitted into a Visual MINTEQ chemical model and Langelier Saturation Index (SI) calculations coupled with calcium carbonate precipitation potential models. The data obtained indicated that as the DOC concentration increased, the SI values decreased which may be attributed to the to complexation of Ca and Mg (the scaling metals) bound to DOC, leaving relatively lower concentrations of the free Ca and Mg ions until the reactive sites of DOC were saturated. The seasonal changes affect pH, DOC and concentrations of other metals present in the water that influenced complex formation and scaling.

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Optimization Of Cancer Treatment Through Overcoming Drug Resistance

Drug Resistance has been reported for most current therapeutic agents against cancer cells, regardless of whether these are chemotherapeutic agents, target therapy or immunotherapy. Heterogeneity of tumor cells is considered an important factor for drug resistance. This heterogeneity is due to renewable small subpopulations of cells called stem-like cancer cells. It is highly possible that different generations of cells exist within one tumor, thus targeting them would result into alternative outcomes as some clones are sensitive and others are resistant to therapeutic agents. Further, tumor cells also have the capability to evolve over time; adding another challenge to treat cancer [1-3].

Initiation of chemo or target therapy for cancer patients depends on the clinical diagnosis, tumor stage, tumor type, molecular characteristics and gene expression.

Corresponding author: Yahya I. Elshimali, Department of Pathology and Oncology, UCLA School of Medicine & Charles R. Drew, University of Medicine and Science, USA, Tel.: +1-818-515-7618, Fax: +1-818-994-9875, E-mail:elshimali@gmail.com, yahyaelshimali@cdrewu.edu

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Reconstruction of Complex Midline Abdominal Wall Defects, Is There a Gold Standard?

The management of patients with open abdomens is an evolving concept. Certain techniques for managing the open abdomen patients can be effective in treating ACS. The goal of therapy is to maximize tissue perfusion and minimize potential intra abdominal complications, such as fistulas and hernias. Meticulous care of the bowel, minimizing trauma from techniques or systems used to cover abdominal contents and protection of the bowel from exposure to the environment can reduce the complications associated with the open abdomen. A Temporal Abdominal Closure should not only protect the intra abdominal contents, but facilitate primary closure of the fascia and minimize the need for secondary repairs of ventral hernias and subsequent repair. Serial bladder pressure monitoring should be a part of post-operative management protocols in high-risk patients and decompression of the abdomen with a pressure of > 25-30 mmHg should be considered even without clear clinical evidence of ACS. While many closure techniques are reported in the literature, a dynamic closure technique, such as Vacuum pack appears to have an advantage in meeting most requirements for managing an open abdomen. IAH and ACS remain the most significant considerations for the management of the open abdomen. IAH and ACS are in part iatrogenic and can be minimized with the appropriate resuscitation protocols. Complications found in patients with open abdomens may be minimized with Vacuum pack Therapy resulting in early closure of the abdomen.

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Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms Governing Functional Recovery of Dementia Mice after Neuronal cell Transplantation

Massive degeneration of the basal forebrain cholinergic cells is one of the major histopathological changes of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The degeneration leads to Acetylcholine (ACh) deficits in the cortex and hippocampus. AD disease severity was negatively correlated with ACh expression. We conducted neuronal transplantation with cells derived from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem (hiPS) cells into the bilateral hippocampi of human amyloid precursor protein transgenic AD mice. The transplantation significantly improved cognitive dysfunction in the mice.

Transplanted neurons differentiated further in the host cortex into human Choline Acetyl Transferase (ChAT)+ cholinergic neurons. In the hippocampus, the grafted cells preferentially differentiated into human vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT)+ cells. We suggest that transplanted neurons may compensate for neurotransmitter loss associated with AD lesions.

Citation: Suzuki N, Shimizu J, Takai K, Arimitsu N, Suzuki T, et al.(2018) Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms Governing Functional Recovery of Dementia Mice after Neuronal cell Transplantation.J Neurosci Neurosurg1:103

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Mortality from Tuberculosis as an Indicator of Psychosocial Distress

Tuberculosis is one of the so-called social diseases; therefore the epidemiological parameters of tuberculosis are often used as an indicator of social well-being in the country [1]. At first glance, the existence of a link between suicide and tuberculosis mortality seems doubtful since suicidal behavior is a psychosocial phenomenon, while tuberculosis is an infectious disease. However, there are at least several possible aspects of such link at the individual level. First, there are arguments in favor of the psychosomatic nature of tuberculosis [2]. Here, the common etiological factor of suicidal behavior and tuberculosis can be psychosocial distress accompanied by a decrease in the immunity, in general, the body’s resistance, which increases the risk of tuberculosis [2]. Besides, an important aspect of existence of relationship between the suicidal behavior and tuberculosis is a suicidal behavior of patients with tuberculosis. One of the most common mental disorders in patients with tuberculosis is depression, which increases the risk of suicide [3]. The literature also reports of an increase in the risk of suicidal behavior against the background of anti-tuberculosis drugs [4].

In general, the mortality rate of tuberculosis patients from external causes: injuries, alcohol poisoning, murders and suicides, is 4 times higher than in the common population [5].

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Open Reading Frame Filtering Methods for Identification of Genic Sequences

Protein-Protein Interactions (PPIs) help understanding disease processes and their mechanisms. Ideally, researcher would like to understand the full network of PPIs that take place within a cell “interactome”, that is why Open Reading Frame (ORF) filtering method was utilized. ORF is a DNA fragment that lacks stop codon and has the potential to demonstrate a physiological interaction. ORFs are obtained by random shearing of DNA into small fragments. Fragments are filtered by insertion upstream of a selectable marker, to allow the survival of cells that only have an ORF. As vast majority of out of frame fragments encodes a premature stop codon. Here we present a method for filtering of genic ORFs ‘real gene’ which results in a physiological protein. Furthermore, researchers thought fragments libraries rather than full-length libraries are perhaps counterintuitive, as expected to result in a high rate of false negatives. However, researchers have found fragments libraries rather than full-length reduce number of false negative interactions. Lastly, great advantage to note is while using fragmented library it allows localization of interaction site, offering a robust path for drug targets, treatments towards cancer and the arising resistance to antibiotics.

Citation: Al-Thani NM, Andrews SS, Büsselberg D. Open Reading Frame Filtering Methods for Identification of Genic Sequences. Methods Microbiol Mol Biol. 2018 Jan; 1(1): 105

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Novel Fiber-rich Supplement Effective for Prevention and Treatment of Acute, Episodic and Chronic Anal Gland Disease in Dogs and Cats

The most common disease entity of the anal area in dogs, Anal Gland Disease (AGD), is directly associated with paired structures located on either side of the anus. Despite frequent manifestations of AGD in both canine and feline populations, veterinarian-client conversations addressing the prevention and management of AGD are typically avoided during routine exam room discussions. Unfortunately, AGD consultations most commonly occur when an animal presents at the clinic with an attendant anal gland problem. Compression of the internal and external muscles of the anal sphincter and the concomitant mechanical pressure of stool during defecation effects a full or partial emptying of anal glands: Problems related to AGD are primarily associated with the inability of the anal glands to empty. Reduction in the incidence of AGD can be accomplished when firm stool exerts enough pressure on the anal glands to allow for natural gland expression, reducing the potential for inflammation. This is especially significant in the management of obese animals and small breeds diagnosed with the disease.

Citation: Ehrenzweig J. Novel Fiber-rich Supplement Effective for Prevention and Treatment of Acute, Episodic and Chronic Anal Gland Disease in Dogs and Cats. Int J Vet Anim Med. 2018 Jan; 1(1):104

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Apical-to-Basolateral Transcytosis of Transferrin-Polylysine Conjugates in Caco-2 Cell Monolayers: A Model of Relay Transport of Protein Drug across Epithelial Cells

While the number of therapeutic biologics on the market has dramatically increased in the past decades, oral delivery of protein/peptide drugs is still one of the challenges for biopharmaceutical scientists. Transferrin (Tf), with its receptor-mediated transcytosis mechanism across intestinal epithelium, has been proven as a potential oral delivery carrier for different protein therapeutics. However, one of the major rate-limiting issues of Tf in oral absorption is that Tf Receptor (TfR) is selectively expressed on the basolateral surface instead of the apical surface of the intestinal epithelium, and thus, limits the mucosal transport capacity of Tf across the intestinal epithelium. To overcome this limitation and develop a more efficient oral delivery carrier, a novel transcytosis mechanism was proposed. The proposed transcytosis mechanism is composed of three major steps: apical binding and endocytosis of Tf with a cationic peptide carrier, intracellular cleavage of the linker between peptide and Tf, and basolateral exocytosis by TfR. The feasibility of the proposed approach was demonstrated when Tf was conjugated to poly-L-lysine (PLL) using a pHsensitive Nitrilo Triacetic Acid (NTA) linker in the presence of nickel (Ni2+). The results of Caco-2 transcytosis assay suggested that the transcytosis rate of histidine-tagged Tf could be unidirectionally increased from apical to basolateral compartment when co-incubated with Ni2+-NTA-PLL.

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Comparison and Analysis of New Echocardiographic Parameters as Predictors of Immediate Outcomes of REDO PTMC

Mitral stenosis still continuing to be a cause of morbidity and mortality in this part of the country. Restenosis rates after PTMC are 10-20%, and after CMV 20-40% in the coming 2 decades [1]. In REDO PTMC the valve is fibrotic and commmisural morphology which is split in the first procedure becomes fibrotic and calcified. The routine scores which analyze the valve does not take into consideration the commercial morphology so we aimed to study new Echocardiographic parameters and comparison with the existing scores in predicting immediate outcomes of REDO PTMC.

Methods and Results: 42 symptomatic patients with mitral restenosis who have undergone REDO PTMC were enrolled and they were divided into 2 cohorts on the outcome as optimal (n=27) and suboptimal (n=15) groups Mean WILKINS SUTARIA and New REDO score were 7.89, 2.33, 8.96 in optimal group, 8.53, 1.60, 10.20 in suboptimal group with significant p value of 0.007 for new REDO score predicting its superior sensitivity over other 2 scores.

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Boffin Access Limited

Boffin access limited is an emerging Open Access publisher with nearly forty journals spanning several fields of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM). Our aim is to create an international venue for researchers from all walks of life to share and exchange their findings in order to push the boundaries of current knowledge.

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