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Article Type: Review Article
Manuscript ID: BRR-1-103
Publisher: Boffin Access Limited.
Journal Type: Open Access
Copyright: © © 2018 Ozaki S.
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0
: Ozaki S. Climate Can Be Regulated by Effective Use of NOx and Waste Water NP. Biomed Res Rev. 2018 July;1(1):103
About 510 billion ton CO2 is produced by burning of fossil fuel and respiration of animal. CO2 142 billion ton increased in 2017. If we can increase fixing of CO2 by promotion of CO2 assimilation, global warming will be protected. To promote CO2 assimilation, supply of nutrient N and P is essential.14.4 billion tons. NOx is produced when140 billion fossil fuel is burned. Many governments are eliminating NOx and NP in drainage as pollution substances. NOx and NP in drainage is promoter of CO2 assimilation, fertilizer of plant growth. Therefore these actions are promoting global warming. NOx elimination is giving bad effect on grain, fish production, electricity price, GDP growth rate. By effective use of NOx and waste water NP, we can increase plankton CO2 assimilation at sea. Stopping of NOx elimination and stopping of waste water purification is easy method to protect global warming and to regulate climate.
The earth is warmed by the fossil fuel burning releasing CO2 and heat. The plant is growing by CO2 assimilation absorbing CO2 producing carbohydrate and O2 compensate the generation of CO2 and heart with the absorption of CO2 and heart by CO2 assimilation, global warming can be protected [1-20]. CO2 react with water by CO2 assimilation to produce carbohydrate and oxygen. Carbohydrate turn to cellulose, tree, plant and plankton. Tree turn to coal, plankton turn into oil in many billion years. Our human being are using this fossil fuel and enjoying civilized life. Animal including fish can live by eating plant and plankton. Animal release CO2 by respiration. Released CO2 react with water to give carbohydrate. CO2 is cycling in such way (Figure 1).
Much carbon dioxide is released by the burning of much fossil and global warming is progressing. Reduction of carbon dioxide is most important for the protection of global warming. To reduce carbon dioxide, promotion of carbon dioxide assimilation is best method to reduce carbon dioxide. 70% of CO2 is used for the plankton. Plankton photosynthesis is studied by many investigators [21-30].
To promote carbon dioxide assimilation, supply of nitrogen fertilizer and phosphorous fertilizer is essential. About 14.4 billion ton Nitrogen Oxide NOx (1/25 of produced carbon dioxide 360 billion ton) is produced in the world. Therefore NOx is most abundant nitrogen fertilizer. About 50 billion tons excreta are produced in the world. An excreta is most abundant nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizer. These NOx and excreta are promoters of carbon dioxide assimilation. NOx and excreta promote the growth of plant and plankton. Plankton is playing most important role for fixing of CO2
Many officials of developed country consider NOx and excreta as pollution substance and established very strict law to eliminate NOx and to eliminate excreta. Then CO2 assimilation is retarded and CO2 fix is retarded and CO2 is increasing and global warming is progressing. I am insisting NOx and NP in wastewater should be used for promotion of CO2 assimilation. NOx elimination should be stopped. Waste water purification should be stopped [1-20].
Carbon dioxide assimilation is most important reaction for all geology on earth. CO2 react with water producing carbohydrate and oxygen. Carbohydrate turns to plant, plankton, grain and tree. Our animal, fish eat these product and do respiration releasing carbon dioxide. Plankton gives oil; tree gives coal for many billion years. Our human being is burning this fossil, natural gas, oil, coal to get energy releasing much carbon dioxide.
About 360 billion ton carbon dioxide is formed.
Most Carbon dioxide formed by burning is used for the new carbon dioxide assimilation.
Population of the world is 76 billion. One person release 0.5 ton CO2. Therefore 38 billion ton CO2 is released in one year. Also many billion cow and seals, whales and bird release CO2, possibly 62 billion ton. Total animal release CO2 will be 100 billion tons.
Total CO2 release will be 360 + 50 + 100=510 billion tons.
This value 510 billion ton is 159 billion tons over than 360 billion ton of my previous paper [2-15].
CO2 fixing: Almost all CO2 produced is fixed by CO2 assimilation.
Amount of CO2 in the world is 28300 billion tons. CO2 is increasing 2 ppm every year.
Increase of CO2 is 28300 x 2/400=142 billion ton.
510-142 = 368 billion ton CO2 is fixed in one year.
If we can fix 368+142=510 billion tons CO2 , we can protect global warming. But 368 billion ton CO2 was fixed in this year. We must increase CO2 fix. To increase CO2 fix, we must promote CO2 assimilation than now. For the promotion of CO2 assimilation, we must increase the production of nutrient N and P than now.
Heat balance of earth: On earth 140 billion ton fossil fuel is burned and CO2 3.6 x 1010t was produced. And 7.4 x 1015 kcal is produced.When we consider the heat produced by animal respiration 7.4 x 1015 kcal x 4.6/3.6=9.45 x 1015kcal is produced.The earth is also warmed by the heat of atomic energy. Uranium produce 2 x 1015 kcal heat electricity generation capacity of the world is 16868 Tetra watt h. Electricity generation by atomic energy is 2086 Tetra watt h. Therefore 7.4 x 1015 x 2986/10868=2.02 x 1015 kcal evolved by atomic energy. The earth is also warmed by the heat evolved by animal. Human being eats 1000 kcal food every day and release heat 1000 kcal every day. Population of the world is 76 billion. Therefore human being is releasing 1000 x 365 x 76 x 108 =2.8 x 1015 kcal in one year. Animal other than human being, caw, bird, whales, seal are producing heat. We can estimate as same as human being 2.8 x 1015 kcal. Therefore total heat is fossil burning produce 7.4 x 1015 kcal, atomic energy produce 2.02 x 1015 kcal. Human beings produce 2.8 x 1015 kcal. Other animal produce 2.8 x 1015 kcal. Total heats produced are 7.4 + 2.02 + 2.8 + 2.8=15.02 x 1015 kcal. We must absorb 15.02 x 1015 kcal by CO2 assimilation. CO2 assimilation must be promoted by stopping of NOx elimination and by stopping waste water elimination. By stopping NOx elimination.14.4 billion tons, NOx can fix 14.4 x 25=360 billion tons CO2 . Amount of N.P in drainage is around 10 billion ton. By using this 10 billion ton N.P, we can fix 10 x 25=250 billion tons CO2 . And we can absorb 15 x 1015 kcal. NOx is a gift from nature: NOx is produced as a byproduct of CO2 , when something is burned. Amount of NOx is 1/25 of produced CO2 . When 25 tons CO2 are produced, 1 ton NOx is produced. Nature has systems to change N2 to nutrient nitrogen. By thunder [31-32], the high temperature at fire place for cooking, warming up of room by burning of wood, by forest fire, by forest burning, by bonfire, and also burning of fossil fuel, following reactions proceed. 1/2 N2 + 1/2 O2 -------> NO - 21.6 kcal NOx is a mixture of 90% NO and 10% NO2 . NOx is dissolved in rain and give nutrient nitric acid and promote the growth of plant and plankton. The earth was boon and plant appeared and plant eat CO2 , H2 O and nutrient N , P, and plant is burned then NOx is produced to recover lost plant .When no burning material present, like sea district, thunder storms make NOx NOx is a gift from nature. We should not against nature. We should use NOx as it is. In 2015 fossil 140 billion tons was burned and CO2 360 billion tons and NOx 14.4 billion tons are produced. If we use all NOx for the fixing of CO2 , we can fix 14.4 x 25 x 108 =360 billion ton CO2 . As C/N ratio of plant is around 5/1-50/1 (average 25/1) . But NOx is hated as pollution gas causing illness. Many governments of developed countries like USA, Japan, Germany, UK, France and Italy set up very strict law to eliminate NOx in burned gas and forced to eliminate NOx using ammonia. Amount of NOx is huge amount 14.4 billion tonne. To eliminate NOx, huge amount of ammonia is necessary and huge amount of fossil is burned. These governments put emphasis on toxicity of NOx than the utility of NOx. 4NO + 4NH3+ O2 ————> 4 N2 + 6 H2 O Elimination of NOx is promotion of global warming three ways. One is retardation of CO2 fix. Two is increase of CO2 by using much butane. Three is consumption of precious fuel for the production of ammonia. I wish to propose plan that if NOx elimination is stopped and if waste water purification is stopped, global warming can be stopped. Phosphorous is essential for fixing CO2 Phosphorous P is important atom constituent of plants and animals. Phytic acid (Inosito Hexaphosphate) calcium salt is contained in every surface of grain such as rice, wheat and corn about 30%. Plant makes glucose by photosynthesis from CO2 and water. Some of glucose is converted to Inositol. Inositol is converted to Phosphoinositides (PIP2 ) and Phytic acid. PIP2 is converted to IP3 and Diacylglycerol. These two compounds are essential for signal transduction of plant , because P is an essential atom to make DNA. The seed store phosphorous atom as a store so that even when seed germinates at no phosphorous land. To make this phytic acid, plant absorbs corresponding phosphorous at harvest time. Lack of phosphorous give poor harvest to plant. How phosphorous is supplied Phosphorous in drainage: About 60 thousand tons phosphorous were contained in drainage in Japan. Population of Japan is 1.2 billion. Population of the world is 76 billion. Therefore 76/1.2=63 times of 60 thousand=3780 thousands. By using this phosphate, 60 x 25=1500 thousand tons CO2 can be fixed and 1500 thousand ton plankton can be produced and fish 160 thousand tons will be produced. Animal eat food containing P and exclude excreta containing P. When toilet disposal and drainage are sent to excreta disposal treatment to plant. P in water was made to water insoluble mass, mixed with cement and made to concrete and buried in soil. Plant cannot use P anymore. This process use huge electricity and consume much fossil fuel. Around two hundred thousand ton fossil and producing five hundred thousand CO2 . For the elimination of one phosphorous, about 25 carbon fossils are used and about 25 CO2 is produced. One phosphorous can fix 56 CO2 . The phosphorous elimination process should be avoided. Because without phosphorous no CO2 assimilation is possible. Excreta are best food for plant. Ocean dumping, field dumping and forest dumping of excreta are recommended to increase the CO2 assimilation.
When we look at the fish production of the world [10-16]. China produced 79.38 million tons fish and Indonesia produced 22.21 million tons of fish. India has 18.11 Vietnam 6.21 million t fish. They do not eliminate NOx and do not do waste water purification they use NOx and excreta as it is for production of plankton and fish. About 20 times CO2 of plankton is fixed. China increased fish production. In 1970 2 million tons, in 1980 3 in 1990 4, in 1997, 16.33, 2002 16.77, 2015 79.38 million tons. 79.38 million Tons fish production is corresponding 0.7938 x 20=16 billion ton CO2 fixing. This increase is proportional to emission of CO2 and NOx. As industry increase production of CO2 , NOx increased. NOx promoted the plankton growth and CO2 assimilation and CO2 fixing and fish production. And protection of global warming and regulation of climate are carried out smoothly getting many fish. China can fix responsible CO2 (15). Japan is emitting 12.5 billion ton CO2 and 0.5 billion tons NOx. CO2 res is 4.95 billion tons . Japan can fix 3.3 billion ton CO2 at 3.8 x 105 km2 area . 1 billion tons CO2 is emitting for NOx elimination and 1 billion tons CO2 is emitting for waste water purification. If these two treatment is stopped, emission of 2 billion ton CO2 is saved and concentration of N,P increase and CO2 assimilation is accelerated and 5 billion ton CO2 will be fixed by 0.5 billion ton NOx. Therefore 1+1+ 5=7 billion ton CO2 can be decreased. 7 billion tons CO2 are 2.05 over the responsible 4.95 billion tons .
70% of CO2 assimilations carried out at ocean by plankton. Plankton grows infinitively if enough N and P are supplied. We should use NOx and NP in waste water completely for the promotion of plankton CO2 assimilation.
Promotion of plankton CO2 assimilation by stopping of NOx elimination and by stopping of waste water purification is easy method to protect global warming and to control climate.