Electrical Engineering Department, University of Bridgeport, Bridgeport, CT, United States
Corresponding author details:
Electrical Engineering Department
University of Bridgeport
Copyright: © 2018 Mitra M. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 international License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Medical nanobots not only repair cells and tissues but also multiple nanobots can help cure various types of diseases such as cancers, infection or to remove infected cells/tissues. To automate Medical Nanobot we need program to detect it and work on it; and there may be the need for manual work to move Medical Nanobot and perform operations.
A very basic software attempt is made for Medical Nanobot using C/C++ later same
methodology can be used for advanced programming of Medical Nanobot. In this paper
flow diagram of medical nanobot for disease detection, removal of infected cells, tissues,
repairing the cells, tissues and continuous monitoring is made including various pseudo
code is demonstrated such as setting up, driving nanobots for manual and automatic,
auto pan/tilt, nano gyro sensors for disease detection, camera configuration, nano servo
mechanism, handling interrupts and synchronization of nanobot using C++.
Nanobot; Nano Robot; Medical Nanobot; Nano Machines; Cell Repair; Tissue Repair;
Medical uses of nano devices incorporate plaque evacuation and heart repair. They should relocate to a foreordained site and stay in that area to finish the task.
Multiple medical nanobots can be used collectively for medical applications to map the human body, to regulate the cardio-vascular system, for insulin regulation, for targeted drug delivery, for diagnosis of cellular pathologies and for destroying tumor cells .
Another necessity of nano machine is that it works autonomously, free of outside control. Physical, electrical, and compound responses can deliver a reaction yet the presentation of these stimuli victimizes the device of the benefit of autonomous task and they additionally can create a reaction in the nanobots encompassing condition.
An innovative theory in the utilization of these nano devices to battle disease that includes utilizing silicon nanomachines with a thin covering of gold and light in the close infrared range.
Light in the 700-1000 nanometer range will go through tissue with insignificant ingestion. At the point when this close infrared light strikes this specific sort of nanomedibot, the device gets hot because of the wavering of the metal’s electrons in response to the light. Utilizing MRI to definitely put the nanomedibots in the dangerous district, the light makes the devices warmth to 131 degrees Fahrenheit which wrecks the destructive cells yet doesn’t harm encompassing tissues.
Likewise with respect to disease treatment, ribonucleic corrosive obstruction is a technique that assaults tumors on a hereditary level. Nanobots weighed down with meddling RNA that deactivates the protein creation of the growth and murders the danger would connect themselves to the tumor and convey the deadly hereditary material.In addition of expelling plaque from blood vessel dividers; they could likewise be utilized to discover arterial weakness.
Nanobots may likewise be utilized to distinguish particular chemicals or poisons and could give early cautioning of organ disappointment or tissue dismissal. Additionally they can be used to take biometric estimations, they might be utilized to screen the general soundness of a person.
These nano devices may discover application in an assortment of mechanical applications. Research is continuous into utilizing them in the oil business.
In addition, current research is examining their application in nano photonics to create light more effectively. PC circuits might be delivered by these small devices. They could make circuits on a very smaller scale than current drawing systems and would take into consideration to manufacture of extremely small processors and chips [2-4].
One of the major advantage of nanobots it can be considered as a way of delivering
differentiated stem cells to various positions in the body. Stem cell research has been a huge increase in regenerative medicine. Nanobots help to enhance its
impact on medicine in the near future by providing an effective way
of delivering them (Figure 1) .
Figure 1: Depicts nanobot repairing a damaged DNA
A. Creating nanobot base class
Pseudocode for simple nanobot base class Example I
Below is the example code to create a nanobot’s base class .
An attempt is made for basic manual execution of program for a Medical Nanobot using C/C++ language
Basic program of nanobot using C
Below is the pseudocode in C program that demonstrates driving the Nanobot for 2 seconds forward in Autonomous and in arcade mode for the Operator Control.
In this code Watchdog time class has been used to make sure that the nanobot will stop operating if program does something unexpected or crashes. something unexpected or crashes
Simple pseudocode for nanobot Pan/Tilt in C++
Below is the example code for Pan/Tilt in C++ .
C. Nano Gyro Sensors for Nanobots
Gyro sensors are the angular velocity applied to a vibrating element, the accuracy with which angular velocity is measured differs significantly depending on element material and structural differences. Various characteristics of gyro sensor include but not limited to scale factor, temperature-frequency coefficient, compact size, shock resistance, stability, and noise characteristics etc., .
In this program robot drives in a straight line using gyro sensor combination with nanobotDrive class. The NanobotDrive.Drive method takes the speed and turn rate as arguments; where both vary from -1.0 to 1.0. In this instance uses the gyro returns values that varies either positive or negative degrees as the nanobot’s deviates from its initial heading .
Simple pseudocode for nanobot gyro sensor
D. Nano Camera for Nanobots
A nano camera is very important to nanobots. C++ provides initialization, control and image acquisition functionality. StartCameraTask () initializes the camera.
Pseudocode for simple camera initialization
Pseudocode for camera configuration
Image acquisition through camera
E. Vision and Image Processing for Nanobots
Nanobot’s vision system has to make distinction between objects and in most of all cases it has to track. It is used to automate the process and object detection .
Pseudocode for Color Tracking for Nanobot Example I
Pseudocode for Using Specified ranges Example II
Pseudocode for Declaration Class Example III
Pseudocode for Initialization of nano camera Example IV
Pseudocode for Automating for nanobot Example IV
F. Nano Servo Mechanismfor Nanobots
Nano Servomechanism is also required for nanobots for rotation.
Pseudocode for Nano servo mechanism Example-I
Pseudocode for Nano servo mechanism Example-II
F. Nano Solenoid for Nanobots
Solenoids are used as an actuator. Here solenoid can be used to remotely control if automation fails or any other malfunction. It can be used as steering of nanobot .
Pseudocode for nano solenoid
G. Synchronization of Nanobots
When there are multiple nanobots then synchronization is required. So that multiple nanobots can perform accordingly to complete the task accordingly.
Pseudocode for synchronization example I
Pseudocode for critical condition example II
H. Handling of Interrupts in Nanobots
Pseudocode for handling of interrupts example
Example UML logic for finite state machine for nanobot
Example UML logic Architectural description design for Nanobot
Figure 2 is the Example of UML logic Architectural description design for Nanobot.
Example UML diagram for access control design for nanobot
Figure 3 is the Example of UML diagram for access control design for nanobot.
Example UML logic for finite state machine for nanobot
Examples of Pseudocodes in C++ is presented,UML logic for
Medical nanobot is for demonstration and illustrations only and is
not tested. Original code may vary and differ based on operations,
model and requirements of multiple functionalities and operations.
Basic Algorithm for Medical Nanobot with the flow chart specified in Figure 4, UML logic for Finite State Machine, UML logic Architecture Description for Nanobot, UML logic for Access control design and example of C++ is presented.
Simplified pseudocode for nanobot is demonstrated such as setting up, driving nanobots for manual and automatic, auto pan/ tilt, nano gyro sensors for disease detection, camera configuration, nano servo mechanism, handling interrupts and synchronization of nanobot using C++.
Based on the above results, basic algorithm for Medical Nanobot can constructed using C++ as shown in the Figure 2.
Examples of UML for Finite State Machine, Access Control
design, Access control logic, Architectural description can be used
for designing software for Medical Nanobot using C++ or any other
For construction of Nanobots biodegradable poly(lactide-coglycolide) (PLGA), an FDA approved polymer, can be used to formulate the nanoparticles to form a nanobot .
Advances in delivering therapy, reduction of analytical tools, enhanced computational and memory capabilities and developments in inaccessible communications will be integrated allowing for the development of such nanobots .
In order to evaluate the effectiveness of technique, known in
literature and simulation results showed the effectiveness technique
in terms of achievement, that is the destruction of the cancerous cells,
and velocity of destruction .
Author would like to thank Prof. Navarun Gupta, Prof. Hassan
Bajwa, Prof. Linfeng Zhang and Prof. Hmurcik for their academic
support. Author also thanks anonymous reviewers for their
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