1 Department of Biotechnology, College of Biotechnology, University of Qasim, Qasim, Babylon, Iraq
Corresponding author details:
Ibrahim M S Shnawa, PhD
Professor at department of biotechnology
College of Biotechnology University of Qasim
Copyright: © 2017 Shnawa IMS. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 international License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
The nature of the mammalian humoral immunoglobulin responses to antigens in
general are either one or more than one of the followings; mono-partite [nomoglobulin],
dipartite [normoglobulin, cryoglobulin] and /or tripartite [normoglobulin, cryoglobulin,
pyroglobulin]. While for bacterin it can be monopartite [normoglobulin], dipartite
[normogloblin, cryglobulin]. Three experimental settings have been adopted. Bacterin
induced cryoglobulin responses in turn may induce cryoglobulin specific pathogenic
potentials as that noted in cases of BCG [pneumogenic, nephritogenic, lymphogenic and
granulomatogenic] and Salmonella typhi [pneumogenic, nephritogenic, lymphogenic]
bacterin induced cryoglobulin in lapin and murine laboratory animal models. Such
pathology is standing as interfering side effect in the preclinical experimental vaccine
evaluation studies. Bacterin during vaccination programs might be of potential cause for
cryoglobulin induced pathogenicity in vaccine.
Antigen; Bacterin; Cryoglobulin; Interference; Preclinical
The systemic humoral mammalian immune responses to antigens (Table 1) span
between normoglobulin, cryoglobulin and / or pyroglobulin [1,2]. While for bacterins it can
be normoglobulin and / or cryoglobulin [3,4]. The objective of the present opinion was to
affix cryoglobulin induced pathology as a consequence of bacterin immunization.
Three experimental settings have been adopted;
Setting I: BCG induced, S. typhi induced and B. melitensis induced in a lapin animal models [3,5,6]
Setting II: S. typhi induced cryoglobulin mediated pathology in lapin models 
Setting III: Human tuberculus cryoglobulin induced pathology in murine model 
The immunofixation studies have shown mixed cryoglobulinemia of IgM-IgG-IgA in
typhoid vaccine and typhoid patients (9) and mixed two variant cryoglobulin responses
were noted among Brucella patients as IgM-IgG-IgA and IgM-IgG (Table 2) responses .
It has been found that human and lapin S. typhi cryoglobulin was pneumogenic,
nephritogenic, and lyphogenic in rabbits model . While human tuberuclus cryoglobulin
was pneumogenic, nephritogenic, lymphogenic and granulomatogenic (Table 3) in murine
The adopted bacterin priming for rabbit and mice depends on a starting dose then two
successive boosting dose at a week a part. It has been found that the more exposure to
bacterin the more cryoglobulin producing and the more cryoglobulin pathogenicity [7,8].
Table 1: Systemic Humoral immune responses to antigens and bacterins [1,2]
Table 2: Cryoglobulin Isotypes in human Patients
Table 3: Cryoglobulin Pathogenicity (11).
Table 4: Preclinical Evaluation of Bacterins and limits of Cryoglobulin
Bacterin specific immune-priming induced normoglobulin
and cryoglobulin responses. Cryoglobulin in turn induced specific
Bacterin induced pathogenicity may interferes with safety (Table
4) parameter of vaccine candidate preclinical evaluation parameters
in laboratory animal level.
Bacterins on specific immune priming of lapin and murine
animal models produce, normoglobulin and cryoglobulin responses.
Allogenic and xenogenic cryoglobulin has been found to be
pneumogenic, nephritogenic and lymphogenic. A point to be noted
when any candidate bacterin is going to be evaluated in laboratory
animal models for approval to human health welfare.
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