Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Abdelmalek Essaadi, Morocco
Corresponding author details:
Department of Electrical Engineering
University of AbdelmalekEssaadi
Copyright: © 2020 Derraz M. This is an openaccess article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 international License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
In the presence of this paper, we aim to present the COVID-19-RCC protocol, a protocol
that can reduce the spread of Corona-virus disease COVID-19 by remotely diagnosing of large
people’s groups, or even entire countries, in a parallel manner. The COVID-19-RCC protocol
is an algorithm for recognizing and counting coughs during a phone’s conversation (in real time), where coughing is one of the main symptoms of Coronaviruses. The recognition is
based on the analysis of the audio frequency spectrum during the call but without recording
the content of the call. Based on the coughing, the stage of illness can be predicted and
the probability of transferring the virus to and infecting peoples in the surrounding area
can be reduced. Several studies have shown that human-to-human transmission of the
Corona-viruses has occurred by droplets or direct contact, which shows us the importance
of detecting patients who complain of coughing as a priority, in order to limit the spread,
as coughing is the main factor behind the droplets. In general, peoples who complain of
coughing can be considered to be at the origin of the spread of the virus. This protocol may
not be the most effective, but COVID-19-RCC can be ready to use, executable and functional
within 24 hours. Especially under these circumstances, we don’t have enough time to
develop a sophisticated solution!
COVID-19; Coronavirus; Remotely diagnose; Detecting coughing; Audio Frequency
The idea behind this concept is based on an old concept that said a package of halfsolutions can perform as an effective solution. Remotely diagnose the virus by recognizing and counting of coughs during phone calls or even by installing a phone’s application that activated on the background, isn’t the perfect solution, also isn’t the all-in-one solution, but we encourage the authorities to add this protocol on the existed package of solutions to strengthen the control’s system since we have not yet reached the right treatment.
In China, they used drones to measure the temperature in the streets of a randomly selected group of people, and the Chinese never said how many we can scan from more than a billion people with drones? Definitely the amount of data is not enough, from the first moment the idea seemed useless and there was no need to apply it in the ground. In on other hand and so far, the Chinese have managed to reach the peak and have started to reduce the reproducibility of the virus while limiting its spread. At present, the virus continues to accelerate its spread in Europe and around the world.
Under these circumstances, many countries can’t develop the same system that china used it in a short time, we have not the time! We suggesting to focus on the second symptom of the virus is the cough in the side of the fever, but the advantage of tracking the cough can be without the need to be on the ground nor on-air with drones to measure the temperature (that confirms the fever), in fact, you should be in telecom cables! Due to the Maxwell equations and linear algebra, the same cable can transmit the millions of data, audio and calls through it, in a parallel manner, without the interference, So let’s use this advantage and install a small system (within 24h) to analyzing the audio frequency spectrum, that system has already existed. The system automatically starts working when a phone’s call starts and recognizing and counting of coughs during the call.
You may think that cough detection is less effective than temperature measurement? But let’s present some facts about the Corona-virus, the virus is transmitting only by droplets! and the main actor behind the droplets is the coughing more than the fever, however, the following paragraphs are detected to present and explain the importance of basing on the cough as a first diagnosis.
The spread of the virus is growing exponentially, so in order to control it, we must follow an exponential procedure too. The detection of coughing during phone calls gives us the same advantage of exponential growth because the call is between two people, so an action of anyone gives the state of two people in parallel. Moreover, to limit the virus, we must work on a large circle of probability and exclude unconfirmed cases, but rather rely on confirmed cases and investigate with patients to predict other inflected cases.
The quality of the system’s predictions will increase over time thanks to the machine learning mechanisms, by classifying the caller that coughing on the grey list, after detecting the cough in a second call, a robot will call the caller and will ask him if he has claimed the symptoms of the virus, if yes, the caller will click 1 to react with the robot, then the caller will be classified on the blacklist if-else, the machine learning mechanisms will learn from this case to improve the classification.
Please note that this article is not a medical article or comes from a biology expert, we are simply trying to contribute what we can do, we do not intend to compete with professionals in their field. You will find below some probability models; they are not the right ones! We suggested it just to help explain the idea, they are not appropriate models! due to a lack of time. Also, due to a lack of time and sources, you will find a direct quote from other articles. I hope that there will be no problems with the original authors since we don’t tend to have negatives intentions.
Since the onset of infection with the new coronavirus COVID-19 in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, it has spread rapidly in China and many other countries. To date, the new coronavirus has affected more than 145,798 confirmed patients (5,531 reported deaths and 67,003 recoveries) and has become a major global health concern.
As well as studies have reported a link between a local fish and wildlife market (Wuhan City) and most cases of infection, which indicate possible transmission from animals to humans, more and more studies have demonstrated human-to-human transmission of “COVID-19” by droplets or by direct contact.
The accelerated spread of the virus through human-to-human transmission has created an urgent need to develop and approve standard treatment protocols. Besides the lack of complete details on the structure and life cycle of the virus, therapeutic development is delayed, preventive measures remain the only procedure to limit the spread of COVID-19.
Few existing drugs have been evaluated for the treatment of COVID-19 and have shown promising good results in clinical applications. The chemicals used to “manage the symptoms of viral infection” have helped several patients in the early stages of their recovery.
To date, there is no known fully effective treatment for COVID-19.
However, potential therapies are emerging as the clinical evaluation
of existing antiviral drugs continues and as knowledge about this
new coronavirus progresses.
Table 1: Clinical manifestation from three study site, Wuhan
Figure 1: COVID-19 spread from 21 January to 11 February, Wuhan .
Figure 2: Flowchart of the tests.
Figure 3: Example of a male, 74 years old with fever and cough for
5 days. Axial chest CT showed bilateral subpleural ground glass
Figure 4: Example of a female, 55 years old, with fever and cough
for 7 days. Axial chest CT showed extensive bilateral ground glass
opacity and consolidation .