Current Trends in Vaccines and Vaccinology

Bacterin Induced Pathogenic Lapin and Murine Cryoglobulins

Ibrahim MS Shnawa1*

1Department of Biotechnology, College of Biotechnology, University of Qasim, Qasim, Babylon, Iraq

Corresponding author

Ibrahim M S Shnawa, PhD
Professor at department of biotechnology
College of Biotechnology
University of Qasim
Qasim, Babylon, Iraq
E-mail: ibrahimshnawa3@gmail.com

  • Received Date: September 27, 2017
  • Accepted Date: November 15, 2017
  • Published Date: December 01, 2017

DOI:   10.31021/ctvv.20171101

Article Type:  Case Report

Manuscript ID:   CTVV-1-101

Publisher:   Boffin Access Limited.

Volume:   1.1

Journal Type:   Open Access

Copyright:   © 2017 Shnawa IMS.
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0


Citation

Shnawa IMS (2017) Bacterin Induced Pathogenic Lapin and Murine Cryoglobulins. Curr Trends Vaccine Vaccinol 1:101

Abstarct

The nature of the mammalian humoral immunoglobulin responses to antigens in general are either one or more than one of the followings; mono-partite [nomoglobulin], dipartite [normoglobulin, cryoglobulin] and /or tripartite [normoglobulin, cryoglobulin, pyroglobulin]. While for bacterin it can be monopartite [normoglobulin], dipartite [normogloblin, cryglobulin]. Three experimental settings have been adopted. Bacterin induced cryoglobulin responses in turn may induce cryoglobulin specific pathogenic potentials as that noted in cases of BCG [pneumogenic, nephritogenic, lymphogenic and granulomatogenic] and Salmonella typhi [pneumogenic, nephritogenic, lymphogenic] bacterin induced cryoglobulin in lapin and murine laboratory animal models. Such pathology is standing as interfering side effect in the preclinical experimental vaccine evaluation studies. Bacterin during vaccination programs might be of potential cause for cryoglobulin induced pathogenicity in vaccine.

Keywords

Antigen; Bacterin; Cryoglobulin; Interference; Preclinical

Introduction

The systemic humoral mammalian immune responses to antigens (Table 1) span between normoglobulin, cryoglobulin and / or pyroglobulin [1,2]. While for bacterins it can be normoglobulin and / or cryoglobulin [3,4]. The objective of the present opinion was to affix cryoglobulin induced pathology as a consequence of bacterin immunization.

Response type Response Nature for antigen Response nature for bacterin
Monopartite Normoglobulin Normoglobulin
Dipartite Normoglobulin, Cryoglobulin Normoglobulin, Cryoglobulin
Tripartite Normoglobulin, Cryoglobulin, Pyroglobulin

Table 1: Systemic Humoral immune responses to antigens and bacterins [1,2]

Experimental Settings

Three experimental settings have been adopted;

Setting I: BCG induced, S. typhi induced and B. melitensis induced in a lapin animal models [3,5,6]

Setting II:S. typhi induced cryoglobulin mediated pathology in lapin models [7]

Setting III: Human tuberculus cryoglobulin induced pathology in murine model [8]

Immunofixation

The immunofixation studies have shown mixed cryoglobulinemia of IgM-IgG-IgA in typhoid vaccine and typhoid patients (9) and mixed two variant cryoglobulin responses were noted among Brucella patients as IgM-IgG-IgA and IgM-IgG (Table 2) responses [10].

Human Disease Type Cryoglobulin Nature References
Typhoid Vaccine ,Typhoid Patients IgM-IgG-IgA [ 9 ]
Brucella Pre-immune, Brucella Patients IgM-IgG-IgA ,IgM-IgG [10 ]

Table 2: Cryoglobulin Isotypes in human Patients

Pathogenicity

It has been found that human and lapin S. typhi cryoglobulin was pneumogenic, nephritogenic, and lyphogenic in rabbits model [7]. While human tuberuclus cryoglobulin was pneumogenic, nephritogenic, lymphogenic and granulomatogenic (Table 3) in murine model [8].

Animal Model Cryoglobulin Source Pathogenicity
Lapin Human, Lapin Pneumogenic, Nephritogenic, Lymphogenic [ 7]
Murine Human Pneumogenic, Nephritogenic, Lymphogenic, Granulomatogenic [8]

Table 3: Cryoglobulin Pathogenicity (11).

Boosting

The adopted bacterin priming for rabbit and mice depends on a starting dose then two successive boosting dose at a week a part. It has been found that the more exposure to bacterin the more cryoglobulin producing and the more cryoglobulin pathogenicity [7,8].

Mechanism

Bacterin specific immune-priming induced normoglobulin and cryoglobulin responses. Cryoglobulin in turn induced specific pathogenicity [7,8].

Interference

Bacterin induced pathogenicity may interferes with safety (Table 4) parameter of vaccine candidate preclinical evaluation parameters in laboratory animal level.

Evaluation Parameters Interference
I-Cell culture Studies
Safety
Antigenicity

-
-
Laboratory Animal Studies
Safety
Antigenicity
Immunogenicity
Immune Protectivity

+
-
-
-

Table 4: Preclinical Evaluation of Bacterins and limits of Cryoglobulin interference [12]

Conclusion

Bacterins on specific immune priming of lapin and murine animal models produce, normoglobulin and cryoglobulin responses. Allogenic and xenogenic cryoglobulin has been found to be pneumogenic, nephritogenic and lymphogenic. A point to be noted when any candidate bacterin is going to be evaluated in laboratory animal models for approval to human health welfare.

References

  1. Parslow TG, Stites DP, Terr AI, Imboden JB (2001) Medical Immunology 10th ed. Lange Medical books/McGraw –Hill NY 218- 219 (Ref.)
  2. Shnawa IMS (2014) Pyroglobulinemia and human Arthropathy. WJPR 3: 45-48 (Ref.)
  3. Shnawa IMS, Jassim YA (2016) Lapin cryoglobulin responses to Brucella meletensis RV-1. IJAPB 5: 341-345 (Ref.)
  4. Shnawa IMS (2016) Vaccinology Letters: A Treatise Concerning Experimental Vaccines. IISTE, USA (Ref.)
  5. Shnawa IMS, Jassim YA (2011) BCG and tuberculin induced experimental secondary cryoglobuinemia. OMJ 7: 209-219 (Ref.)
  6. Shnawa IMS, AL Serhan AJ (2014) The Immune features of S typhi somatic O antigen induced lapin cryoglobulinemia. Int J Curr Res 6: 9065-9068 (Ref.)
  7. Shnawa IMS, AL Serhan AJ (2014) The Pathogenic Potentials of S typhi specific human and lapin cryoglobulin in a lapin model, Int res J Bio Sci 3: 57-61 (Ref.)
  8. AL Zamily KY, Shnawa IMS, AL Azzawi A JR (2017) An immune mediated and tissue responses induced by human tuberculus cryoglobulin in murine model. Kerb J Agri Sci 113-124 (Ref.)
  9. Shnawa IMS, AL Serhan AJ (2014) Mixed IgG, IgM, IgA cryoglobulin responses in human typhoid patients IOSR JPBS 9 :26-29 (Ref.)
  10. Shnawa IMS, Jassim YA (2014) Mixed two variant types of cryoglobulinemia associated with brucellosis human patients. WJPR 3:1883-1889 (Ref.)
  11. Shnawa IMS (2015) Immunology of Natural and Induced Cryoglobulinemia. IISTE,USA (Ref.)
  12. National Institute of Health (1998) Understanding Vaccines. Publication Number: 98-4219 (Ref.)