Basic, Applied Pharmacy and Pharmacology

Ethnobotanical Values of Dioscorea Species Available in Eastern Ghats, India

Sabeela Beevi Ummalyma1,2, Rajkumari Supriya Devi1,2, Jayanta Kumar Patra3*, Sanjeet Kumar1,2*

1Ambika Prasad Research Foundation, Regional Centre, Imphal, India

2Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development, A national institute under Department of Biotechnology Govt. of India, India

3Research Institute of Biotechnology & Medical Converged Science, Dongguk University, Republic of Korea

Corresponding author

Jayanta Kumar Patra
Research Institute of Biotechnology & Medical
Converged Science
Dongguk University
Republic of Korea
E-mail: jkpatra.cet@gmail.com

  • Received Date:05 April 2018
  • Accepted Date:01 June 2018
  • Published Date:29 June 2018

DOI:   10.31021/bapp.20171103

Article Type:  Short Communication

Manuscript ID:   BAPP-1-103

Publisher:   Boffin Access Limited.

Volume:   1.1

Journal Type:   Open Access

Copyright:   © 2018 Ummalyma SB, et al.
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0


Citation

Ummalyma SB, Devi RS, Patra JK, Kumar S. Ethnobotanical Values of Dioscorea Species Available in Eastern Ghats, India. Basic Appl Pharm Pharmacol. 2018 June;1(1):103.

Abstract

Genus Dioscorea comes under the family of Dioscoreaceae. The tribal and rural communities of the world used the species of Dioscorea as a source of potent ethanobotanical medicines. An investigation was made for the documentation of common traditional systems for curing diseases and disorders using available Dioscorea species of Eastern Ghats (EG), India. The most common species of EG are D. bulbifera, D. hispida, D. glabra, D. pantaphylla, D. alata, D. spinosa, D. wallichii, D. hamiltonii, D. bellophylla, etc. Among them, five species (D. bulbifera, D. alata, D. pantaphylla D. puber and D. hispida) were selected for the documentation of ethno-botanical values. Results showed that the selected species are used to cure skin infections and birth control.

Keywords

Eastern Ghats; Dioscorea sp; Ethanomedicinal; Antibacterial; Birth control; Antioxidant

Introduction

Forest and its biodiversity are highlighting the importance of existence of all life forms [1,2]. The richer the diversity of life, the greater is the opportunities for biological discoveries [3]. The food, shelter and clothes are the basic needs of man, met by the forest resources [4]. The forest of Odisha is comes under major part of Eastern Ghats. The state enjoys unique geographical variations such as high and low altitudes, coastal areas, mangroves and plains. Major portion of the South East Odisha is occupied by Eastern Ghats. There are limited records and no specific details are available on food and medicinal importance of wild Dioscorea species available from this regions. However, an attempt was made to document the ethnobotanical values of Dioscorea species from aforementioned areas. The results discussed here are based on the field work conducted in Eastern Ghats with tribal and rural communities during the survey conducted from 2011 to 2016. The methodology used for the ethno botanical study was done as per the standard techniques of exploration and germplasm collection protocol (Hawkes 1980), qualitative and quantitative ethnobiological approaches in the field, elicitation methods, data collection, interviews, and further authentication was done as per earlier reports [5,6]. Figure 1 shows the anoramic view of Eastern Ghats, India.

Studies showed that Ban Aalu (Local name of Dioscorea in Eastern Ghats) with antioxidant and nutritive content not only enrich the diet of the local rural and tribal people but also make them healthy due to its ethno-botanical values. Tubers of Dioscorea species are used in ifferent ormulations for curing various diseases [7,8]. For birth controlling effect, the plant dried tuber chips are eaten in an empty stomach in last day of menstrual cycle to next 15 days. For abdominal pain, skin and other bacterial infections, matured tubers of D. pentaphylla are used in a macerated form. In order to get recovery from problem associated with constipation, tubers of the plants kept overnight under running water and consumed as a chips. The paste made from Dioscorea species is applied externally up to 6 to 8 days to cure wounds whereas D. puber used asmacerated with water and Karanja oil (Pongamia pinnata) and final paste is applied twice a day to get recovery from wounds and other skin infections. Dried Dioscorea tubers are chopped in water overnight and boiled with rhizome of Curcuma officinalis and the water is taken during delivery to reduce labour pain.These kinds of application of Dioscorea species are documented and reported earlier researchers as well [9- 11]. Several tropical tuber species are exploited for the preparation of tonics, expectorants, carminatives and stimulants (Mishra et al., 2008). Indigenous knowledge on wild tubers is an integral part of the traditional and socio-cultural lives of the people in Eastern Ghats, India (Figure 2). They have developed a range of processing methods in accordance to their demands. However this indigenous knowledge is vanishing day by day due to migratory habit from rural to urban cities and modern life style in search of better livelihood. A good combination of indigenous knowledge is essential to document and promote the utilization of such bioresources available in this particular state. In this context, in present investigation, authors found some unique and not reported ethno-botanical claims of Dioscorea species of Eastern Ghats. Table 1 representing the ethnobotanial values of selected Dioscorea species from these regions. The ethno-botanical survey revealed that utilization of tuber and other vegetative parts of selected Dioscorea from Eastern Ghats which is unique among the tribal and rural communities and used as single and multiple formulation as medicine (Figures 3 and 4). D. alata is used as food, D. pentaphyllla used as medicine and the tubers are used against wide range of diseases.

The practice of treating various diseases using plant parts can be easily traced back to prehistoric times. This increasing knowledge of tribal practitioners and millions of aboriginals from generation to generation transferred into the main stream and has emerged as traditional medicine system. They use different parts of the plants in wide range of form such as the plant parts in different forms such as paste, juice, decoction, powder, ash, diffusion, etc. in crude form to cure ailments. However, modern medicine cannot draw a conclusion until and unless such tribal knowledge is experimentally and scientifically proved. The healing properties of aromatic and medicinal plants are due to the presence some biochemical (bioactive) compounds. Hence the bioactive compound present in Dioscorea species has therapeutic and medicinal values.

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Figure 1: Panoramic view of Eastern Ghats, India
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Figure 2:Collection of ethno-botanical values of Dioscorea species from tribal communities.
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Table 1::Ethnobotanical values of selected Dioscorea species

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Figure 3:Uses of five selected Dioscorea species against different diseases and disorders
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Figure 4: Mode of uses of five selected Dioscorea species as therapeutic medicine against different disease and disorders.

Acknowledgement

Authors would like to thanks Ambika Prasad Research Foundation, Imphal, Manipur: for providing all support and help for the completion of this work and Tribal communities of Eastern Ghats of India.