1Department of Nursing, Fukuoka Nursing College, Japan
Corresponding author details:
Department of Nursing
Fukuoka Nursing College 2-15-1, Tamura Sawara -ku, Fukuoka, 814- 0193
Copyright: © 2020 Tomi Y. et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 international License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
It has been noted that the rate of oral care practice by home health care nurses is lower
than that of excretory care in Japan. Disparities in oral care practice by home health care
nurses and their collaboration with dentists exist at their discretion. This study examines
the current status of oral care practice by home health care nurses and the determinants of
oral care practice. Oral care was practiced more often with older patients, in the care level
of 4/5 (the higher the number, the more severe the care requirement in cerebrovascular
disease patients, and with patients who used ventilators. Factors that influenced home
health care nurses’ discretion to practice oral care were assessment Implementation, use of
a tongue brush, working with physical therapists, and age.
Oral care practice; Home health care nurses; Visiting nurses; Oral care
In Japan, nurses and other professionals visit people of all ages at home to provide nursing care for them so that they can live in the community and do not need to hospitalized. The services include observation of the patient’s condition, home care, consultation and guidance on medication, and medical treatment under the doctor’s orders. However, it is up to the nurse to decide whether or not to provide oral care.
Oral flail is one of the leading causes of death in the elderly, and is associated with
pneumonia and dysphagia [1-3] sarcopenia  and dementia . It has also been reported
that older adults who receive proper oral care have a better quality of life . Therefore, it
is extremely important to implement oral care.
To investigate the current status of oral care practices by home health care nurses and
examine the determinants of oral care practices.
Of all home health care station offices (11,618) in Japan, 1,000 randomly selected offices were requested to complete a survey, and all home health care nurses who answered and returned the questionnaire were included in this study
Rates of oral care practice by home health care station, nurse demographics, age or
developmental stage of patients, level of care, disease and treatment status were calculated.
Multiple regression analyses were conducted for factors that correlated with the level of
oral care practice. Significance levels were set at less than 5%.
Oral care was practiced more often with older patients, in the care level of 4/5 (the
higher the number, the more severe the care requirement in cerebrovascular disease
patients, and with patients who used ventilators. Factors for oral care practice are
assessment implementation, use of a tongue brush, and working with physical therapists,
and age (Table 1 and 2).
Table 1: Status of oral care practices
ANOVA p<0.001 R:0.735 R2:0.541 Adjusted R2:0.531
Table 2: Multiple regression analysis of oral care implementation factors
1. Japanese home health care nurses provided oral care to patients with high medical needs, such as cancer, cerebrovascular disease, intractable disease, dementia, old age patients, care level 4 and 5, and treatment conditions such as tube feeding, ventilator, and tracheostomy.
2. Factors that influenced home health care nurses’ discretion to
practice oral care were assessment Implementation, use of a
tongue brush, working with physical therapists, and age.
Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (JSPS:19K11291)/ Ministry
of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology
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